Sunday, February 19, 2012

Glimpse of Montreal Protocol

                Montreal Protocol is an international agreement signed by 24 countries in September 1987 to protect and control the substances that could deplete the Ozone Layer. The treaty tackles about the reduction of the substances such as halons, methyl chloroform, chlorofluorocarbons and carbon tetrachloride. In 2006, these ozone depleting substances have been reduced to 95% by the 191 parties that signed the treaty.
Montreal Protocol was built when the Sherwin Rowland and Mario Molina, chemists from the University of California, released an article in the journal Nature ­­about the effects of CFC’s chain reaction process which destroys the Ozone layer. In their article, it describes that one chlorine atom could destroy as many as 100,000 molecules of Ozone. The destruction of Ozone could definitely affect us. There would be a possible spread of diseases like skin cancer, the drying of crops due to extreme heat and as what we are experiencing, the climate change. Due to this article, the hypothesis that these chemists brought up made an extensive media interest that leads in the formation of the Montreal Protocol.

 To date, Montreal Protocol has the greatest degree of global participation than any other United Nations Treaty. Moreover, developed countries actively participated in the phased out the production and the consumption of these chemicals. Through this, the developing countries continue to explore and research an alternative for these chemicals. In its scientific results, if we continue to follow the provisions of the Montreal Protocol the Ozone Layer is expected to return to its pre 1980 levels by 2050 and 2075. The effect of these could lessen the diseases that spread out like skin cancer and cataracts and could improve the climate change that we are experiencing right now. These are only few benefits that we could experience as we follow the provisions in the protocol. This shows that, it is not impossible to reduce the usage of these destructive substances. It happened because we do it altogether. Even small things could contribute a change as long as we do it hand in hand.

Thursday, February 9, 2012

Can You Feel the Difference?

Unfamiliar things are happening to us now a days, and we could easily ignores them while we are too busy on our own things happening to us. We could see some calamities happening and injures many people but, we don't bother to have interest for it just didn't happen to us. Normally, this is one of the fact about our life today.

On April 5, 2010, the UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon called the drying up of the Aral Sea one of the planet's most shocking disasters and urged Central Asian leaders to step up efforts to solve the problem. As the world's fourth-largest lake was shrunk by 90% and when it is seen and captured by the satellite and comparing to the past image, the result was devastating. One big blue sea shrink as one crooked shaped formed by the lake. We could also base our topic to the the disappearance of Lake Chad in Africa is another vital destruction of the lake.

On April 30, 2010 there once also an article issuing the melting of the iceberg and slowly boosting sea-level rise. When we think of an Iceberg we could think of the time when the Titanic sunk hitting one, yes, it is also melting down. Such beauty which had been created and also a land and a home to the species living in the northern and southern most part of the world.
When an ice cube melts in a glass, the overall water level does not change from when the ice is frozen to when it joins the liquid. So, do you think that the melting of icebergs doesn't contribute to sea-level rise? Well, it doesn't sound like much, as it is said that 0.049 millimetres per year, but if all the sea ice currently bobbing on the oceans were to melt, it could raise sea level by 4 to 6 centimetres. As we can see that the fresh water which the iceberfs are made of, is less dense than the salty sea water. So while the amount of sea water displaced by the iceberg is equal to its weight, the melted fresh water will take up a slightly larger volume than the displaced salt water. And this will results as small increase in the water level of the earth. It is been reported by the calculation proven currently measured 3.1 millimetres per year of sea-level rise.

The cause of the Ozone layer thinning of our Earth, harm so much to our world to change. If you are feeling these changes, we must act now and not later.

p.s. prefer the act in the article below.

Thursday, January 26, 2012

Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion

Effects on Human Health

Too much UVB could cause skincancer because it plays a major role in maligna melanoma development of the skin cancer disease. Furthermore, the ozone layer depletion could also cause eye cataracts. The depletion of the ozone layer increases the amount of UVB and it could result into a high risk of getting diseases especially skin and eye diseases.

Effects on Plants

Too much UVB could also affect the development of plants. The increase of UVB radiations could also affect the plant growth. Hence, these changes that is caused by UVB can have important implications in terms of biogeochemical cycles, plant competitive balance, herbivory and plant diseases.

Effects on Marine Ecosystems
Phytoplankton form the foundation of aquatic food webs. Solar UVB radiation has been found to cause damage to early developmental stages of fish, shrimp, crab, amphibians and other animals. The most severe effects are decreased reproductive capacity and impaired larval development. Even at current levels, solar UVB radiation is a limiting factor, and small increases in UVB exposure could result in significant reduction in the size of the population of animals that eat these smaller creatures.

Effects on Biogeochemical Cycles

Increases in solar UV radiation could affect terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical cycles, thus altering both sources and sinks of greenhouse and chemically-important trace gases. These potential changes would contribute to biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks that could change or affect the atmospheric buildup of these gases.
If we continue to disregard the care for our Ozone Layer, every specie living will be affected. Everything will be in chain reaction. There are a lot of things we could do to save our Ozone layer. May it be small or big but whatever it is, we must and we should help to save our Ozone layer because at the end, it will always be us who will be mostly affected.

Summary of Provisions: Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

  • Controlled substances include CFCs 11, 12, 113, 114, and 115, and halons 1211, 1301, and 2402. For purposes of calculating control levels, the production, imports, and exports of each chemical are weighted by an individual ozone depletion potential estimated for each chemical.
  • Entry into force (EIF) requires at least eleven signatory nations representing at least two-thirds of estimated 1986 global consumption of controlled substances.
  • Consumption and production of CFCs will be frozen at 1986 levels beginning six months after the date of EIF. (Consumption is defined as production plus imports minus exports to parties.)
  • Consumption and production of halons will be frozen at 1986 levels beginning three years after EIF.
  • Consumption and production of CFCs will be reduced to 80 percent of 1986 levels beginning in the period July 1993 to June 1994.
  • Consumption and production of CFCs will be further reduced to 50 percent of 1986 levels beginning in the period July 1998 to June 1999.
  • An additional 10 percent of production will be allowed for purposes of supplying developing nations until June 30, 1998. On July 1, 1998, this percentage will increase to 15 percent.
  • Low-consuming developing nations are allowed to increase consumption up to 0.3 kilograms per capita for a period of ten years in order to meet "basic domestic needs." After ten years, the developing nations must follow the reduction schedule.
  • Scientific, environmental, economic, and technological assessments by independent expert panels will be made beginning in 1990 and at least every four years thereafter.
  • Import of any controlled substance in bulk from nonparty states is prohibited beginning one year after EIF. Import from nonparty states of products containing CFCs is banned beginning four years after EIF.
  • Within five years after EIF, parties will determine the feasibility of banning or restricting trade in products made with CFCs.
  • Canceling the 50 percent reduction step would require a vote of two-thirds of parties together representing at least two-thirds of the calculated level of consumption of all parties to the protocol.
  • Other adjustments and reductions require a vote of two-thirds of parties together representing at least 50 percent ofconsumption.
  • Addition of new controlled substances to the agreement requires a simple majority of two-thirds of the parties.

For more information about these provisitions. Please Visit:

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

Hole in the Ozone Layer

Hole in the Ozone Layer

The chemicals called chloroflurocarbons CFCs, were invented in late 1920s. Theses chemical are used and released by our common appliances which are the refrigerators, air conditioners or some materials like Styrofoam packaging and spray cans. Actually this molecules will goes up in the air and stays in our atmosphere for the moment. And these billions of CFC molecules will cause a big damage to our Ozone layer at it stays there. In fact it takes a lot of time as it reaches to our stratosphere which it would causes damage to the Ozone layer. As for there long time that we are release an excessive amount of CFC molecules until now, what could we be expecting at theses present moment that how great amount of these molecules are stuck up there and continues to destroy our Ozone layer.

As many countries had banned those materials that are creating CFC molecules which are very harmful to our mother earth but still, not all of the countries are practicing these kinds of law like the poor countries having difficulties managing economy.
If we think about later on in this world, thin crusted Ozone layer would not able to protect us from the unwanted and harmful Rays from the sun. We must act now and starts a research on preventing this molecules releasing in our world. We could have more advanced technology without harming the environment, and I’m encouraging you to think now and act as soon as possible. Let’s give ourselves a time to think for our World.

Wednesday, January 11, 2012

Montreal Protocol: A Sneak Peek

Beijing Montreal Protocol, 1999

The Montreal Protocol is an agreement upon by countries all over the world which focuses on the reduction of several chemical compounds or substances that may cause harmful effects in the ozone layer, the protective barrier up in the atmosphere.

The Montreal Protocol has, in the long run, has been successful in phasing out several substances harmful to the ozone. The protocol has been revised or changed over the years in several conventions made by several countries such as China. Different substances have been included in the list and was set that it should be phased out in a given time frame.

Some alternatives were given to replace the ozone-destructing CFCs or cholorofluorocarbon such as HCFCs and HFCs which are successful in phasing out CFCs and at the same time, giving the same benefits of CFCs.


The Evolution of Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol was created to reduce the production and consumption of the substances.

The Montreal Protocol includes a unique adjustment provision that enables the Parties to the Protocol to respond quickly to new scientific information and agree to accelerate the reductions required on chemicals already covered by the Protocol. These adjustments are then automatically applicable to all countries that ratified the Protocol. Since its initial adoption, the Montreal Protocol has been adjusted five times. Specifically, the Second, Fourth, Seventh, Ninth, Eleventh and Nineteenth Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted, in accordance with the procedure laid down in paragraph 9 of Article 2 of the Montreal Protocol, certain adjustments and reductions of production and consumption of the controlled substances listed in the Annexes of the Protocol. These adjustments entered into force, for all the Parties, on 7 March 1991, 23 September 1993, 5 August 1996, 4 June 1998, 28 July 2000 and 14 May 2008, respectively.

In addition to adjusting the Protocol, the Parties to the Montreal Protocol have amended the Protocol to enable, among other things, the control of new chemicals and the creation of a financial mechanism to enable developing countries to comply. Specifically, the Second, Fourth, Ninth and Eleventh Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted, in accordance with the procedure laid down in paragraph 4 of Article 9 of the Vienna Convention, four Amendments to the Protocol – the London Amendment (1990), the Copenhagen Amendment (1992), the Montreal Amendment (1997) and the Beijing Amendment (1999). Unlike adjustments to the Protocol, amendments must be ratified by countries before their requirements are applicable to those countries. The London, Copenhagen, Montreal and Beijing Amendments entered into force on 10 August 1992, 14 June 1994 10 November 1999 and 25 February 2002 respectively, only for those Parties which ratified the particular amendments.

In addition to adjustments and amendments to the Montreal Protocol, the Parties to the Protocol meet annually and take a variety of decisions aimed at enabling effective implementation of this important legal instrument. Through the 22nd Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, the Parties have taken over 720 decisions. The decisions adopted by the Parties are included in the reports of the Meetings of the Parties and, along with other documents considered during the meetings, can be accessed under the meetings' links. In addition, the decisions of the Parties taken during those meetings are included in the Montreal Protocol handbook.